This problem occurs for one of the following reasons, depending on the kind of email account that you are using.

Internet email account (POP3, IMAP, HTTP)

You receive this error message because Outlook 2013 and later versions have a default attachment size limit of 20 megabytes (20480 KB) for Internet email accounts. This limit prevents your computer from continually trying to upload very large attachments that exceed the limits of most Internet service providers. This limit applies whether you are adding one large attachment that is greater than 20 megabytes (MB) or several attachments whose sum total size is greater than 20 MB.

Microsoft Exchange Server email account

If you are using an Exchange Server mailbox, you receive this error message (by default) if you attach one or more items to a message, and if the sum total of the attachments is greater than 10 MB (10240 KB). This attachment limit is not related to the limit in Outlook for Internet email accounts. This limit for an Exchange mailbox stems from the Maximum send size setting that is configured in the Transport Settings Properties dialog box by the Exchange administrator.

Alternatively, you can use Sendlinx to do a direct upload instead instead of attaching such a large file triggering native limitations.